Quays and wharfs are structures that provide the interface, via a berthing area and a mooring system, between a port basin and its operations on land. There are three main types of quay walls:
- Gravity quay walls, generally constructed from concrete blocks or caissons;
- Sheet pile quay walls, consisting of an anchored retaining wall;
- Pile supported decks, consisting of a system of piles, with or without an embankment, supporting concrete slabs.
Bouygues Travaux Publics is highly proficient in the design and construction methods of these three types of quay walls. We use our consultancy skills and expertise for our clients and, as more projects are completed, have developed increasingly innovative solutions to improve delivery times.
Thanks to the expertise of its teams, Bouygues Travaux Publics is also involved in projects to reinforce or upgrade existing structures to increased operating requirements, to new operating conditions (increased loads, higher draught) or environmental requirements. As the original plans are often not available, these complex projects require the services of experts with an in-depth knowledge of the evolution of construction techniques over several decades. The objective being to reuse the existing structures as much as possible and to carry out work in such a way as to minimize the impact on port operations and the environment.
Design and construction of the island’s first cargo port
Completed in 2003 in record time, Puerto Caucedo is the first multimodal cargo port in the Caribbean. Ideally located, it enables the largest containerships from Europe and Asia to reduce their journey time. By designing an ingenious alternative, Bouygues Travaux Publics reduced the overall cost of the project while improving navigation conditions for ships by widening the entrance channel: the 630-metre quay, which was initially to be constructed by means of a sand reclamation in the sea, was built on land. To do so, Bouygues Travaux Publics built an anchored wall, whose dimensions were optimised by taking into account the proximity of the suitable building land in place, made up of fossilised coral with a good mechanical resistance. In addition to the quay, the operation included the design and construction of a protective breakwater, a platform area for container storage, operations buildings, traffic lanes and necessary miscellaneous external works.
Execution of the restructuring work of the port of Saint-Guénolé
The modernisation of the port of Saint-Guénolé is part of the wider reorganisation of the ports in southern Finistère and provides significant support to the development of the economic activity of one of the leading sardine ports in France. Fourteen months of work were required to build the 158-metre-long gravity dock, the slipway, the 26,500 m² of platform area and the dredging work to level the entrance channel. The 76,000 m³ of material from the excavation was entirely reused for the construction of the platform area, which will house a 3,000 m² business park.
Rehabilitation of the Masselin mole and construction of two additional berths
Under the impetus of the Languedoc-Roussillon region, which has now become Occitania, the port of Sète-Frontignan has entered a new phase in its development, with a particular emphasis on passenger traffic, especially to and from Northwest Africa. To give substance to this ambition, Bouygues Travaux Publics Régions France was chosen to rehabilitate the Masselin mole, the cornerstone of the new passenger terminal. Spread over 10 months, the work consisted of building two additional berths by reinforcing the two existing quays to accommodate ships with a deeper draught and a length of up to 220 metres. Furthermore, two roll-on/roll off berths, also known as ro-ro berths, are designed to accommodate ships with a mobile access ramp for loading and unloading goods by towing, and a 750-m² quayside platform area completes the facility.
Execution of the terminal extension
As the natural maritime gateway of the Greater West, the Greater Maritime Port of Nantes Saint-Nazaire decided in 2015 to make major investments to support the region’s renewable energy industries and also to improve its capacity to accommodate increasingly large container ships. The consortium, led by Bouygues Travaux Publics Régions France, was awarded the contract to extend the fourth berth at the Montoir-de-Bretagne terminal from 250 to 600 metres. The 350 metres of new quay are supported by 580 steel piles driven into the bed of the Loire. 1,157 prefabricated reinforced concrete elements were positioned on this mesh structure to form the quay’s cover slab. 200 metres of the new quay were reinforced to allow the handling of heavy goods, such as offshore wind turbine nacelles, weighing up to 500 tonnes. Another unique feature is that the quay is equipped with sensors to analyse its behaviour over time and to monitor its resistance to various constraints (tides, passage of heavy loads, etc.).
Execution of the extension works of the Flanders terminal
Completed in 24 months, the work to extend the Flanders terminal now enables the Grand Port Maritime of Dunkirk to simultaneously berth two new-generation container ships, each capable of carrying more than 22,000 TEUs (twenty-foot equivalent units). Extended by 500 metres, the terminal quay has a total length of 1,800 metres and can berth ships with a draught of 16.5 metres in all tidal conditions. The terminal quay is located in sandy soil with clay and silt layers. This specificity obliged the consortium led by Bouygues Travaux Publics Régions France to work using the combi-wall technique. Its structure is made up of 205 40.5-metre-long steel pipe piles and 410 sheet piles driven into the sand. A technique that has already been tried and tested on many projects, the combi-wall on the Flanders terminal quay stands out because of the 40-metre depth to which it was driven and rammed into a grouted wall.
Design, construction and maintenance of a wharf dedicated to the movement of pyrotechnic material
Toulon military port is the largest industrial site in the Var region, home to most of the French fleet and the largest navy base in France. Bouygues Travaux Publics Régions France completed the construction of a 180-metre long and 17-metre wide wharf. This structure, designed to withstand the most extreme conditions, is dedicated to the handling tactical weapons of the French Navy. In addition to this wharf on piles, the company built the access structure, a 200-metre-long Warren-type truss bridge, and the services for the new structure. Designed, built and maintained in a military environment, the structure meets the security requirements of the Toulon naval base. In order to minimise the impact of the worksite on the operation of the naval base, the piles for the jetty were driven from a ripable pile-driving platform and the reinforced concrete slabs were prefabricated at the naval base and then transported by sea.